Volleyball is a court game between two teams of six players per side that is played by hitting a ball to the opposite side over a net. When the ball hits the ground or goes out of one of the two parts of the court, it is a point or an opportunity to serve for the other team.

The games are played in 5 times and the first to achieve 3 is the winner. To win a time, one of the two teams must reach 15 or more points with a minimum advantage of 2 points. On the court, each team can hit the ball up to 3 times before passing it to the opposite field and no player can hit the ball twice in a row.

Volleyball history

Volleyball was created in 1895 by William G. Morgan in the USA, who at that time was the director of Physical Education at the Holihoke Ymca located in Massachusetts, to incorporate an entertainment and competitive game in his physical education classes for adults in this institution. This game, which was originally called mintonette, quickly became very popular throughout the world.

Thanks to the support of the Ymca to this sport, it was introduced in Canada and then in many countries such as the Philippines, Canada, Japan, Burma and other precursors took it to Mexico, Africa and Asia.

In 1928, the USVA: United States Volleyball Association was created. The first national championships in this sport were held in the United States of America in 1922.

The first international contacts between Poland and France were made in 1938, unfortunately interrupted by the Second World War, and relations were restored in 1945.

The first US volleyball championship was played in 1922, and in 1964 volleyball was recognized as an Olympic sport, being played for the first time at the Tokyo Olympics.

Volleyball rules

  • Teams can be made up of 12 players and only 6 players each participate in the game.
  • The location of the players should be three in the front and three in the back of the court.
  • Teams can differentiate their libero player with the color of his shirt, this is the defense specialist.
  • Each team’s plays begin with a serve.
  • The team scores the points when the opposing team commits a foul by not controlling the ball.
  • Players must prevent the ball from touching the ground within their zone, otherwise it will be a point for the other team.
  • If, when attacking, the ball ends up off the court due to poor defense, it will be a foul for the team that touched the ball and point to the opposing team.
  • If the team inadvertently touches the ball three times and has not passed the ball to the other court, it is a point for the opposing team.
  • Players must be well positioned at the time a player is about to serve the ball, otherwise it is considered a rotation fault.
  • At the moment of the service, no player can touch the net.
  • Players may not touch the court space of the opposing team.
  • When the serve is made, the ball must go to the opposite court, otherwise it is considered a foul.
  • When a ball passes to the other side of the court at the time of a service but hits the net, they can stay on this court and are allowed.
  • Each team can hit the ball a maximum of three times before it is hit over the net and sent to the other court.
  • It is allowed to hit the ball with the legs or foot.

This sport is widely practiced by both men and women. In volleyball, players must master the skills of the game: volley, receive, serve, and spike.

Volleyball court

Volleyball courts are a rectangle measuring 18 meters long by 9 meters wide, divided by a net in the middle that marks the separation for each team, this sport can be developed on indoor and outdoor courts.

These courts must have a smooth floor without imperfections, since the players will be in constant contact with the floor, for this reason it cannot be slippery either.

There are some zones around the court called free zone, it must measure 3 meters wide where plays with the ball are also allowed, in international competitions this zone measures 5 meters above the lateral line and 6.5 meters from the so-called lines background.

volleyball ball


Volleyball balls can be made of various materials, although the most used, most comfortable and of best quality are leather.

Its measurements are 65-67 cm in circumference, 260-280 g in weight and a pressure of less than 0.3-0.325 kg/cm2. They are lighter and smaller than those used in football and basketball. There are rubber or plastic balls that are used in practices and training.

On the other hand, there is an international volleyball event called the Volleyball World Cup or Volleyball world cup, this competition can participate in both male and female teams. Held every four years, the women’s competitions were created in 1973 and the men’s in 1965.

This world cup opens a gap towards the volleyball world championship, 12 world teams of both sexes participate, the last editions of this event have been held in Japan, with a growing hobby in this Asian country with a rise in the rating of the television audience in charge of broadcasting sports in this country.

The men’s volleyball world cup is an international event played by a selection of men over 21 years old (senior) belonging to the FIVB International Volleyball Federation.

This competition involves 12 teams including the team of the host or host nation, the competition lasts for two weeks, this cup is the first step for participation in the Volleyball World Cup, with the two best teams qualifying.

It is important to note that there are different variations of volleyball: when the playing field is the beach it is known as beach volleyball, in this case the teams are made up of two players; there is also minivolleyball, it is played with a lower net, shorter court, and teams of 3 players; and finally, there is sitting volleyball, which is practiced by disabled people.

Around the year 1920 on the beaches of Santa Monica, volleyball undergoes an evolution and Beach Volleyball emerges, in the 70s tournaments and competitions sponsored mainly by beer and cigarette companies begin to emerge.

This sport quickly began to gain popularity and preference, so much so that it is practiced on the many spectacular beaches around the world.

The courts for this discipline measure 16 meters wide by 8 meters long, the ball used is very similar to that of volleyball, but with less internal pressure. In the Olympic games or official competitions, each team is made up of two players with no options for changes. In informal matches up to four players are accepted.

In this sport, pressure, balance and the disposition of the extremities are stimulated through exercise. Reduces fat, improves cardiovascular pressure, the athlete must have aerobic power and a lot of flexibility.

Adapted volleyball, also known as sitting volleyball, is a discipline in which athletes with disabilities participate. According to the above, this is a Paralympic sport, whose purpose is to help people with motor disabilities in the practice of a sport and their social integration like most sports of this style.

In this sport, only the hands are used, the players, due to their disability, sit on the floor and move around to play, favoring athletes in rehabilitation and recreation.

The court measures 10 x 6, always in covered spaces and divided by a net of 1.15 cm high for men’s games and 1.05 for women. At least 5 sets are played, the team that scores 25 points in four sets wins, if a fifth set is played the team that scores 15 points first wins.