The Vatican is the smallest independent state in the world and exists exclusively as a papal residence. Until the year 1860, the Pope governed large areas of central Italy but these were incorporated into the then newly formed Kingdom of Italy, which would invade Rome itself in 1870, confining the Pope to the complex of buildings for religious and administrative functions known as The Vatican. In 1929, it was recognized as an independent state in exchange for the pope renouncing his claims over Rome and surrounding territories.

The Vatican lacks industries, agriculture or commerce, although it does get some income into its economy from tourism. It is the administrative seat of the Catholic Church, which sustains it financially. Its sovereign is the Pope, currently Pope Francis I, who was elected in 2013. Vatican City’s system of government is an absolute, ecclesiastical monarchy and elective theocracy. Its current secretary of state is Pietro Parolin.

All high government officials belong to the Catholic cleric, from different parts of the world. The official currency, as in the rest of the European Union, is the Euro and the official languages ​​are Latin and Italian. Among the places of interest in the Vatican, are the Basilica of San Pedro, the Sistine Chapel (recognized work of art by Michelangelo) and the many Museums of the city, within which are some of the works of art Most important in the world. Being the smallest city-state in the world, it has a population of just 842 people (according to the July 2014 census), making it extremely safe.

However, what little crime there is in the Vatican consists primarily of foreign pickpockets robbing tourists. Even when a criminal is apprehended committing a crime within the territory of the Vatican, he must be handed over to the Italian security forces (who monitor the security of the city-state) and prosecuted according to Italian law for later incarceration in penitentiary centers in Italy, since these do not exist in the Vatican. All costs are covered by the ecclesiastical State.