Turbine, is a voice that derives from the Latin “turbo”, “turbĭnis” which means “whirlwind”. A turbine is a constant flow motor machine, which gives rise to mechanical work through a system of curved blades which are called blades, and these use thermal, kinetic or fluid pressure energy. In other words, turbines in a general sense are fluid mechanisms or devices, which through them continuously cross a fluid, thus expressing its energy through a system of blades. This is a rotary engine that transforms into mechanical energy, that energy emanating from a current of gas, water or water vapor.

Benoît Fourneyron was a French engineer, born in Saint-Étienne, Loire. Fourneyron was the one who designed the first practical turbine in 1827, also made significant contributions to the development of water turbines. The fundamental element of a turbine is the rotor, which is integrated with a series of propellers, blades, blades or hubs positioned around its circumference, so that in this way the fluid that is in motion generates a tangential force that activates the wheel and allows its rotation. It is a mechanical energy that moves through an axis to provide the displacement or circulation of a machine, electric generator, propeller or compressor.

The turbines are composed of one or two wheels with blades, which are called stator and rotor that is driven by said fluid, dragging the axis where the rotary movement is generated. Turbines can be classified as hydraulic and thermal; the hydraulic ones are those in which the fluid undergoes a considerable density change during its passage through the stator; and the thermal ones are those where the fluid does undergo a considerable density change during its passage through the machine.