The word topography comes from a Greek word, which is composed of lexical elements topos or τόπος, which means place, territory and spelling, which means description, treatise and writing. Topography is the science that studies the targets of the earth’s surface, with their shapes and details, both natural and artificial or fictitious.

This representation takes place on flat surfaces, limiting itself to small increases in terrain, using the denomination of “geodesy” which is a mathematical science that studies and determines the shape and magnitude of the entire terrestrial globe that builds the provided or corresponding maps for larger areas. , but in the case of topography the Earth is geometrically flat, while for geodesy it is not.

Topographic maps use the dimensioned plane representation system, showing the highest part of the terrain using the lines that connect the points with the same elevation, which is the number that on the maps indicates the height of a point above sea level or on another level plane with so-called curves and they say that the map is topographic, it is the one that studies the distribution of the highest part of the earth’s surface.

Topography is a discipline or technique that is in charge of describing in a very detailed way the surface of a terrain, but it is not only limited to carrying out the elevation of fields in the land but also has components editing and cartographic writing, which is responsible for study the elaborations of geographic maps.