Taeniasis


Taeniasis is a pathology in which the patient has symptoms such as anemia, insatiable hunger, weight loss, anal itching, diarrhea, headache, among others; This is caused by the infestation of a type of parasite cestodes (without a complete digestive system), hermaphrodites, flattened dorsally ventrally (with a ribbon-like appearance), with a segmented body (presence of rings), which reaches the human body through the ingestion of meat. With little cooking, specifically beef and pork, these parasites lodge at the level of the small intestine and can grow up to 12 meters. These parasites are called Taenias (or the popular tapeworm).

If undercooked beef is consumed, the transmitted parasite is Taernias saginata, on the other hand, if undercooked pork has been consumed, the parasite harboring the infected host will be Taenias solium. These parasites have a fixation apparatus called Escolex which allows to differentiate what type of Taenia is being dealt with, the scolex of the Taenia solium has four suckers together with a double crown of hooks while the Taenias saginata only has four suckers; Next to the scolex is the neck in both parasites and later the body or strobilus begins to segment, which is made up of proglottids, which can be classified as young, it is not possible to appreciate them well under microscopes, then they progress to mature proglottids that are characterized because it is larger and testicular masses and uterine ramifications are appreciated and finally the strobilus is also made up of gravid proglottids (called loops because they are full of eggs), these allow us to differentiate the taenia solium from the saginata since in one they are branched in dendritic shape and in another they are dichotomously branched respectively.

The evolutionary cycle of these parasites is as follows; Firstly, the infected man expels the gravid proglottids or the eggs through the feces, the bovine or porcine animal consumes food infected by these human feces, through the gastric juices the eggs hatch (explode) within the digestive tract of the animal and a larva is released that travels to the muscular tissues, brain or eye of the infected bovine or porcine, in these areas they invaginate to mature, then the human, when slaughtering the animal, consumes the meat with little cooking that the larva of these parasites has in a state infective called cysticercus, (cysticercus celulae for taenia solium, cysticercus for taenia saginata) that finally settles in the human small intestine.