Spinal cord


This is one of the main structures that make up the central nervous system. The spinal cord originates at the level of the brain stem and descends along the spinal canal or also known as the vertebral canal. It is made up of a total of 31 segments. It could be said that this structure is a combination of neurons and glial cells. Its functions include transmitting nerve information from the brain to the rest of the body.

For their part, those membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord are the arachnoid, the dura mater and the pia mater. In those cases in which the spinal cord suffers some damage, the chances of suffering from paralysis are quite high, which is why its protection is very important.

The nerve tissue of the spinal cord is formed within the so-called spinal canal, which measures approximately 45 centimeters and has an average weight of 30 grams. in the upper area it is attached to the medulla oblongata, on the other hand its lower part is fixed at the base of the coccyx. If this structure is studied crosswise, it is possible to find a gray substance, which is surrounded by a white substance.

As for damage to the spinal cord, it can have very serious consequences, from loss of sensitivity and movement in the extremities, as well as in the neck and trunk, to loss of sphincter control, as well as other disorders. It is for this reason that the protection mechanisms available to the spinal cord are of great relevance, these being the cerebrospinal fluid, the epidural space, the vertebrae and the meninges, which contribute to minimizing the risk of injury to this structure and in the If it exists, its damage is minimized as much as possible.

The spinal cord is divided into regions just like the spinal column, these areas are the cervical segment, dorsal segment and lumbar segment. In its lower portion it is called the terminal cone and is generally located at the height of the first lumbar vertebra, all the space that remains and which corresponds to the lumbar spinal canal, accommodates the spinal nerves that travel a path before reaching the foramen. Where they leave the column, said final portion is called Cauda Equina.