Sinusitis


The inflammation of the mucosa that is located in the paranasal sinuses, caused by some infection or another cause, has been called sinusitis. These sinuses are the spaces through which the air passes inside the bones that are around the nose, which produce mucous, which drains into the nose and if the nose is unwell due to inflammation, the sinuses can be blocked and cause pain.

According to its location, we can talk about ethmoidal sinusitis, also known as ethmoiditis; maxillary, frontal or sphenoid sinusitis and pansinusitis, which is when all sinus groups are affected unilaterally or bilaterally.

On the other hand, depending on the duration of the condition, we will speak of acute, subacute, chronic and recurrent sinusitis, with a presence of less than four weeks, between four and twelve weeks, greater than twelve weeks and several attacks in the same year. , respectively.

Sinusitis presenting in childhood is distinguished from sinusitis presenting in adulthood because of the postnatal development of the various sinus groups. Thus, in newborns and infants only ethmoiditis occurs, in early childhood ethmoiditis, which may be associated with maxillary sinusitis, and from adolescence onwards any sinus may be affected. However, ethmoiditis and maxillary sinusitis are always the most common in any age group.

The most important factor that produces sinusitis is the partial or total obstruction of the sinus ostium, frequently caused by the edema produced by a catarrhal process of the upper airways. It should be noted that in chronic sinusitis, anatomical or constitutional anomalies are also often incriminated.

The ostial obstruction causes a stasis of the secretions, with a decrease in pH and a drop in the partial pressure of intrasinusal oxygen, changes that give way to the formation of an environment conducive to the colonization of bacteria, which in turn leads to inflammatory phenomena. of the mucosa that feed back the process, which increases the ostial obstruction.

Said inflammation of the mucosa causes an alteration in mucociliary transport, since a much thicker mucus is produced, which is difficult to eliminate and expel, which contributes to an additional blockage.

In the rhinogenous processes that condition sinusitis, the main bacterial agents that occur are: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

Chronic sinusitis can be bacterial or fungal, or associated with some granulomatous disease.

The main symptoms of sinusitis are congestion, cough, weakness, fatigue and fever. Its diagnosis is given by examinations of the face and nose and to treat it will be necessary: ​​antibiotics, analgesics, decongestants, saline nasal sprays, vaporizers and the use of heating pads in the inflamed area.