seizures


At the level of the nervous system, a type of specialized cells called “neurons” work, this particular tissue is responsible for sending information to the entire body through an intercommunication called a synapse, this information is known as a nerve impulse and is transmitted from neuron in neuron without establishing physical contact, it is essential to execute any neuromuscular movement. The transmission of these impulses has to be regulated, at the moment in which they become exacerbated or accelerated the seizure occurs, when a patient convulses it is because at the neuronal level they are producing paroxysmal discharges (accelerated synapses), executing a discharge if totally abnormal with hypersynchrony between a group of neurons.

The hyper transmission of nerve impulses causes an abnormal contraction of all the muscles at the body level, these movements are classified as tonic-clonic because two phases of contraction can be differentiated: in the tonic phase, it is characteristic that there is a loss of consciousness followed by significant body rigidity, while in the clonic phase rhythmic mobility is observed at the muscular level. Seizures according to the number of affected muscles can be classified as partial and generalized, partial seizures are those that occur in a specific area, it can be a hand, in the eye, etc., while the generalized seizure is in all muscle tissues of the human body.

The clinical manifestations presented in a patient with a seizure can be: loss of consciousness, prolonged muscle contraction, rigidity in the tonic phase of the seizure, the secretion of the oral mucosa (sialorrhea) is significantly increased, this is due to of the increased concentration of parasympathetic neurotransmitters, in turn, there is retroversion (retraction of the eyes), relaxation of all the sphincters (faecal, urinary, esophageal), and finally postgital state that is the post-convulsion stage, within this phase the patient presents pupils with a low reaction to light, and they normally remain mydriatic (dilated pupils). We speak of seizures when these paroxysmal discharges occur between 0 and 7 years, if the period of appearance exceeds seven years, the patient is said to have epilepsy.