Scholasticism


Scholasticism represents a school based on philosophy and theology, which Greco-Latin philosophy tried to use to better understand the religious revelation of Christianity. It was a doctrine that prevailed in the cathedral schools between the 11th and 15th centuries. However, its formation was not very heterogeneous, since in addition to welcoming Greco-Latin currents, it also adopted Arab and Judaic doctrines.

Scholastic philosophy had its heyday with the work of the most relevant sage of the entire Middle Ages: Saint Thomas Aquinas. This philosopher was the most faithful exponent of scholasticism and (following Aristotle) ​​created the union between knowledge and faith, indicating the two paths that lead to God: that of faith and revelation and that of reason and observation. formed with the senses; very similar to the current point of view of science.

Philosophically, scholasticism developed in three stages:

The first stage focuses on the initial identification, between reason and faith, since for believers, God represents the source of both kinds of knowledge and truth, it has been one of its main characteristics, in a way that God could not disprove both ways. And if by chance, there was some conflict, faith is the one that should prevail over reason; just as theology prevails over philosophy.

In the second stage, the reflection persists that reason and faith only have one area in common.

The third stage takes place in the late thirteenth century and early fifteenth century, here the separation between reason and faith were higher.

In the field of scholasticism, humanity has been created in the image and likeness of God and has characteristics as important as reason and will. It is also important to mention that scholasticism affirmed that thoughts should obey the principles of authority, this means that their reasoning should be subordinated to authority, moving away from the scientific and empirical method. This is why it is thought that scholasticism was formed within a rigid system.

However, during the nineteenth century, scholasticism appeared a little more renewed and it was what was called neo-scholasticism, which tried to revalue the content of a rich but somewhat forgotten theological and philosophical tradition. Neo-scholasticism could also be identified as neo-Thomism, since this renewal promoted the depth and updating of the studies carried out by the great philosopher Thomas Aquinas in relation to philosophy and theology.