A robot is a machine controlled by a computer and programmed to move, manipulate objects and perform work while interacting with its environment. The robot sometimes resembles humans and is capable of performing a variety of complex human tasks when instructed to do so, or programmed in advance.

The term robot comes from the Czech word robot which means “forced labor”, was first introduced by the Czechoslovakian playwright and author Karel Capek, in his play RUR (Rossum’s Universal Robots) in 1921; which frequently revolved around his views on the possible danger of these machines, incorporating the idea that the human makes the robot and the robot kills the human. Machines performing tasks were viewed with fear at this time, and the usurpation of the human race by robots remains a popular theme in science fiction.

The robots we know today were developed after World War II, due to the increasing demand for automation in the automobile industry. It should be noted that before robots were nothing more than tools for automation. They were theoretically programmed to perform a specific task: transport, load, unload, weld, paint, etc. Currently, there are so-called intelligent robots, which carry out functions such as detecting any change in their environment. These act accordingly considering the new modifications either by changing operations or discovering a new one.

As robotics (the science dealing with robots) and computer technology have advanced, robots have been able to perform tasks that are increasingly complicated, dangerous and unpleasant for humans. In medical laboratories, robots handle materials that carry potential risks, such as blood or urine samples.

They are also used in the industrial field, such as the manufacture of automobiles, assembly of electronic devices (microchips on circuit boards), also in the exploration of distant planets, search for underwater mineral deposits, housework (domorobots), military applications, in the field of medicine, in the specialties of orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, eye surgery, etc.