Rhabdomyolysis


Rhabdomyolysis is understood as the destruction of skeletal muscle cells, as a consequence of different mechanisms of muscle injury. These muscle injuries evolve in phases and begin in the acute phase with sudden pain, depending on the extent of rhabdomyolysis, an evident increase in creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and myoglobinuria.

Skeletal muscle is responsible for moving the skeleton in the joints, so when said muscle tissue breaks down, symptoms such as muscle tenderness, muscle stiffness or pain, and weakness in the muscles that have been affected occur. In addition, other symptoms of this disease are generalized weakness, decreased urine production, the urine produced is expelled dark brown, red or even with a color like that of black cola, myalgia, dehydration, confusion, fever, vomiting, seizures, and involuntary weight gain.

Also, when the muscle tissue breaks down, the contents of the muscle fibers begin to be released into the bloodstream, which can affect some organs of the body such as the kidney, and can be the cause of acute kidney failure.

In the subacute phase of regeneration, about a week after the onset of symptoms, symptoms slowly diminish and laboratory values ​​regress.

Many cases of rhabdomyolysis are caused by the use of drugs such as amphetamines, PCP, statins, heroin, and cocaine. Another reason is infections, trauma, ischemia, extremes in body temperature, other genetic muscle diseases, seizures, low phosphate levels, lengthy surgical procedures, severe dehydration, intense effort to run marathons and can also be caused by drugs, due to the reaction that many may have with a large part of them.

On the other hand, complications in the case of extensive rhabdomyolysis can be: compartment syndrome due to severe swelling, recurrent rhabdomyolysis, irreversible muscle necrosis, acute renal failure due to myoglobinemia, hypokalemia and hyperkalemia, harmful chemical imbalances for the blood and shock ( low blood pressure).

Rhabdomyolysis can be diagnosed by tests and examinations such as: physical (to identify sensitive or damaged skeletal muscles), evaluation of the level of creatine kinase (CK), serum myoglobin, serum calcium, serum potassium, urinary myoglobin, and urinalysis. It can also be detected by evaluating CPK isoenzymes, urine creatinine, and serum creatinine.

The treatment of this disease consists of the consumption of liquids with bicarbonate, for the prevention of kidney damage, kidney dialysis (if necessary) and diuretics, for when urine production decreases. You must be vitally careful with kidney failure and low blood calcium levels.