Omeprazole


Omeprazole is a drug that inhibits stomach acid secretion. It is used for the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux conditions. This drug, whose trade name can be varied on the market, acts on the cells of the gastric mucosa, inhibiting up to 80% the secretion of hydrochloric acids (HCl) by canceling the output of protons in the pump electrogenic H+ / K+.

What is omeprazole

Omeprazole belongs to the group of proton pump inhibitor drugs, which are also known as those drugs that reduce sharply and with lasting action the acid produced by the stomach in gastric juices. It acts on the gastric parietal cell, producing control by reversible inhibition of stomach acid secretion with only one daily dose.

Mechanism of action of omeprazole

It is indicated for the treatment of duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer, including those that complicate treatment with NSAIDs, for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer, for the treatment of severe reflux esophagitis, for the symptomatic treatment of reflux and in the treatment of Zollinger – Elison’s Syndrome, it should be taken when the doctor considers it appropriate or if one has occasional gastroesophageal reflux. It is indicated whenever the patient has stomach problems or is over 55 years old.

Indications of omeprazole

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This drug is indicated with medical restriction for the following treatments:

  • Burning and acid regurgitation.
  • Ulcers of the upper part of the intestine.
  • Stomach and duodenal ulcers.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Presence of gastroduodenal ulcer.
  • Gastric ulcer.
  • Chronic erosive esophagitis.
  • Pathological hypersecretory conditions.
  • Ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection.

Presentations

It comes in the form of capsules containing a gastro-resistant coating at a dose of 20 mg.

It is also available as a 40 mg injectable dose as a solid powder for extemporaneous reconstitution. Its stability is a function of pH and, mixed with acidic vehicles for oral ingestion, it guarantees a maximum shelf life of seven days. This presentation is used only if the patient is unable to ingest it.

All preparations must be protected from light and kept between 15 and 30 °C maximum. The usual doses for adults are 20 or 40 mg/day. in periods of two, four and up to eight weeks in short treatments.

In prolonged treatments, the dose is 20 mg/day. The maximum dose is considered to be 360 ​​mg daily, although higher doses have occasionally been administered. Doses greater than 80 mg/day should be administered in fractions because the mechanism of action of the substance means that the amounts are wasted more than indicated by the saturation of the cell membrane.

On the other hand, some presentations of Omeprazole on the market can be obtained under the names of Arapride, Aulce, Ceprandal, Elgam, Losec, Nivel, Nuclosina, Omapren, Zimor, Prysma, Ompranyt, among others, or cheaper generic presentations. Also in powder to be diluted in water, in compressed tablets or capsules.

The latter normally has a delayed release, so that the drug contained in each capsule is not destroyed by stomach acids, but is released on the walls of the esophagus.

Dose

  • Omeprazole Injection: for patients with gastric duodenal ulcer or reflux esophagitis, the dose is 40 mg daily.
  • In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, the starting amount is 60 mg.
  • Omeprazole suspension: heartburn and acid indigestion: 1 capsule of 20 mg per day.
  • For gastric and duodenal ulcer: take 1 capsule of 20 mg per day, for 2 or 3 continuous weeks.
  • In patients with ulcers refractory to other treatment regimens, cure is achieved in most cases with a dose of omeprazole 40 mg once daily.
  • Reflux esophagitis: 1 capsule of 20 mg. Once a day for 4 weeks.
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: the first dose should be 60 mg once a day.
  • Most patients are controlled with omeprazole doses of 20 to 120 mg daily. If the dose exceeds 80 mg daily, it should be divided and given twice daily.
  • In geriatric patients or in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency, no dose adjustment is necessary.

On the other hand, it is an inexpensive product, and the price of Omeprazole, especially in Mexico, can vary according to the amount of product that your pharmaceutical company has and its presentation. For example, the price of Omeprazole in 20 mg capsules in generic brands, the presentation of 120 pills ranges between $120 and $150.

Omeprazole Side Effects

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Side effects that may exist for this medicine range from constipation, vomiting gas, headache, nausea, to more serious effects such as heart damage due to magnesium deficiency, osteoporosis, diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile or even neurological damage. , pernicious anemia and dementia due to lack of vitamin B12.

However, this drug should be used with caution during pregnancy and lactation.

Omeprazole in pregnant women

Women who are in a state should take precautions, however, if heartburn occurs during pregnancy there is the possibility of resorting to medications to treat said condition, previously consulting the doctor so that he is the one in charge of giving the indications regarding your administration.

On the other hand, the conclusion of three prospective epidemiological practices (which involved the outcome of the pregnancy of more than 1,000 women), do not present adverse drug reactions in pregnancy or health of the fetus or newborn, that is, that it can be used during pregnancy as it is excreted in breast milk, but is not likely to affect the child when doses are used.

Contraindications

It should be taken 30 minutes before the meal. The tablets should not be chopped or pulverized, since the natural pH of the esophagus and the mouth would disintegrate the microencapsulation, and the drug would be exposed to degradation by gastric juice.

This drug is contraindicated in patients who have previously had hypersensitivity reactions to the drug. Its use is not recommended for long periods of more than 8 weeks, except in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and Barrett’s esophagus under medical supervision, since it can cause osteoporosis in the long term.

Frequently Asked Questions about Omeprazole

What is omeprazole used for?

It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux, helps relieve the feeling of heartburn and stomach heaviness by reducing acidity in the gastric juice produced by the stomach, allowing the esophageal lining to heal and preventing further damage.

How to take omeprazole?

Orally, it should be taken before meals, preferably in the morning. If doses of more than 80 mg per day are administered, it should never be taken as a single dose, but every 6, 8 or 12 hours, depending on the amount of drug administered (maximum dose / day = 360 mg). The intravenous route only in special cases.

What does omeprazole contain?

Its components are: talc, polysorbate 80, neutral microgranules (corn starch and sucrose), hypromellose, sodium lauryl sulfate, mannitol, methacrylic acid copolymer, disodium phosphate, macrogol 6000, titanium dioxide, and ethyl acrylate.

How to stop taking omeprazole?

It is stopped taking from four to eight weeks, in gastric ulcer. They may require periods of time in patients with large ulcers or gastroduodenal ulcers in smokers. Some patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome receive continuous treatment for five years. In the maintenance therapy of esophagitis it will be used for one year.

What is better omeprazole or pantoprazole?

The selection of these will depend on the case and the decision of the doctor. Both omeprazole and pantoprazole are very good medicines to regulate gastric problems.