The word nephrology comes from the Greek νεφρός (nephrós), which means kidney, and the suffix -logia (study, treatise). It is a medical specialty that is subdivided from the branch of internal medicine and which specializes in the organs of renal function and its structure both for the treatment of diseases related to renal function and the prevention of these to the system.

The specialist in nephrology is called a nephrologist. Nephrology is commonly confused with urology due to the similarity between the two, however urology specializes in the male urinary system and nephrology covers much more of the anatomical field, reaching the channels through which the processes that lead to function are carried out. and it is not a surgical discipline like urology, that is, it is in charge of diagnosing and controlling systemic disorders (according to diagnosis) and combats them with treatments.

Some of the disorders that concern nephrology are renal failure (chronic or acute), hematuria, proteinuria (loss of protein in the urine), kidney stones, kidney cancer, nephritic or nephrotic disorders, cases of renal substitution , among others.

Nephrology works together with urology. If a patient needs, for example, a kidney transplant, it will be the urologist who will perform the surgical procedure, however, the nephrologist will be the one who does the planning, from finding the right donor to the postoperative follow-up where immunosuppressive treatment must be applied and the infections that This causes.