Metaphor


The word metaphor comes from the Greek goal (beyond) and pherein (carry or transport). Consequently, it is the carrying beyond; that is, to transfer a meaning from one field to another. The metaphor consists of transferring the meaning of an image to another figured with tacit comparison and of similar morphology.

Since its inception, the concept of metaphor has been presented as the appropriate instrument to go beyond the limits imposed by the literal form of language. The term metaphor manifests by itself the fundamental capacity that the mind has to express relationships that transcend direct or habitual meaning, and allows us to go beyond the simple adequacy of meaning/signifier and build abstract worlds.

In linguistics, metaphor is a mechanism of expression in which a word or group of words pass from their own semantic context to be used with another meaning, without there being a direct comparison between the element that designates and what is designated: symbolic transfer .

The two elements related to each other, are similar in some quality (physical aspects, relationships, prepositions, etc.), what is found in one can be discovered in the other. Possibly these elements compared have little in common, but familiarity with one of them allows a better understanding of the other. For example; “that boy is an airplane”, this expression means that the boy has a very agile mind (it could not be an airplane).

The metaphor is characteristic in poetry, it can be found in any writing except in purely scientific or mathematical material. Metaphors can cause comprehension problems for readers who are not aware of this means of conveying meaning.

In the field of psychology, specifically psychoanalysis, the metaphor is associated with the process of identification. When listening to someone, the subject absorbs and incorporates the other’s word.