The word menopause comes from the Greek “mens” which means monthly and “pausi” which means cessation. Menopause is the moment in which the woman has the cessation of her menstruation and has physiological connections, with the decline in the secretion of estrogens due to the decrease in follicular functions. Menopause begins around the age of 50, and it begins because a woman begins to gradually slow down her ovarian function, so she doesn’t produce enough of the two female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Low hormone levels are the cause of all the symptoms in the menopausal stage. Menstruation occurs seasonally and eventually stops. Sometimes this happens suddenly. But normally the menses finish little by little through the passage of time.

Menopause is complete when a woman has not seen her period for 1 year. This is called postmenopause. Medical menopause occurs when surgical procedures cause estrogen depreciation. This usually happens when both ovaries are removed. Menopause in some cases is caused due to the implementation of certain drugs for chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer.

Certain kinds of surgeries or the use of birth control medicines can cause menopause. An example is removing the uterus, that is, performing a hysterectomy on a woman causes the cessation of menstruation. It also occurs when the two ovaries are removed through an oophorectomy, when going through any of the two interventions mentioned above, the signs of menopause such as the symptoms will begin immediately, regardless of the patient’s age.

There are three phases of the menopausal cycle comprised of:

  • Premenopause: It is the beneficial time prior to menopause.
  • Perimenopause: It is the period prior to menopause, when the endocrinological, biological and clinical events of approach to menopause take place, and the first year after menopause.
  • Postmenopause: It is the cycle that develops from the last period onwards, regardless of whether the menopause was prompted or spontaneous.