The Jacobins, also called the Club of the Jacobins, was one of the French political parties of the 17th century, which would become immensely popular for its confrontations against the Girondins, during the sessions of the Assembly of the National Convention, the entity that was in charge legislative and executive affairs of the French First Republic. They had a republican tone, that is, they defended France as a republic, based on compliance with a series of laws (constitution), in addition to supporting universal suffrage, popular sovereignty and ensuring a centralized state.

They are often known for their violent actions during the September massacres, also known in France as le Terreur (the terror), in which ordinary French citizens were prosecuted and sentenced to death for apparent reasons. The Girondins, one of the political movements also established in the Assembly, accused them of instigating these acts, which triggered a series of clashes in this place. It is important to mention that the name Jacobins came as a result of a writing, under the authorship of the French poet and writer Alphonse de Lamartine, called Histoire des Girondins (History of the Girondins), where the history of their adversaries, the Girondins; in his time of government, they were known as the mountaineers or the highlanders.

The end of his mandate ends when Maximilien Robespierre, its main exponent and precursor, is arrested along with Louis Saint-Just, George Couthon and his younger brother Augustin Robespierre. They were declared “outlaws” (hors la loi), and later guillotined.