Hawthorne effect


Within the psychological context, the term Hawthorne effect is defined as a way of internal reactivity, through which people who undergo experimental tests go through, this effect begins to manifest once the individuals undergoing studies present changes in their behavior. These modifications in their behavior arise from the fact that they are aware that they are being observed.

The work environment is the scenario where people develop daily and represents a determining factor of satisfaction and productivity. The psychologist Elton Mayo found important elements that allowed us to understand the needs of each human being, obtaining for this, the achievement of new ideas, which defined organizations as social units, where each person who works in it performs an important work. , being for man one of the most significant tasks of his life.

According to this theory, it was considered that people could become motivated by different factors: economic, psychological and social; assuming that a happy worker is a worker who produces. Deducing from this that if the workers are given adequate attention, it is almost certain that this will influence the productivity of the company.

This psychologist, a specialist in organization theory and human relations, receives an invitation from the Hawthorne Works factory to join an investigation that the factory was going to carry out, with the aim of verifying that if the state of the ambient lighting influenced the increase or decrease in work performance, the interesting thing is that once the changes began, productivity increased and not only in those moments when lighting levels were high, but also when they decreased. Once the investigation was completed, the productivity level of the workforce returned to its normal values. These results could be interpreted, stating that the improvement in performance is not due to the corrections made to the lighting in the workplace, but to the motivation that the employees felt when they knew that they were the object of the study.