Soil is the surface layer of the earth’s crust in which numerous organisms live and vegetation grows. It is a structure of vital importance for the development of life. The soil supports plants and provides them with the necessary nutritional elements for underdevelopment.

The soil is formed by the decomposition of rocks due to sudden changes in temperature and the action of moisture, air and living beings. The process by which rock fragments get smaller, dissolve, or go on to form new compounds is known as weathering.

The rock products of weathering mix with air, water, and organic debris from plants and animals to form soils. This process takes many years, which is why soils are considered non-renewable natural resources.

The main components of the soil are: living and dead organic matter, represented by plant remains, fungi, earthworms, insects and other animals, and humus (dark, pasty material that has formed over centuries on the soil profile ); inorganic matter, caused by the weathering process, thus producing some phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen, which determine that a soil is fertile for a type of crop.

Water is also found, its presence is of vital importance, since it keeps the nutrients in solution that will be used by the plants; and the air, which occupies the pores left free by the water, contains atmospheric gases, mostly carbon dioxide. According to their physical state, the components of the soil are found in: solid, liquid or gaseous phase.

Among the physical properties of soils are texture, structure, porosity, temperature, consistency and color. Its chemical properties are manifested in the transformation of the soil-forming substances; for example, in the presence of organic and inorganic nutrients, ion exchange, and soil acidity (pH).

There are several classifications of soils, which depend on the criteria used to make them; the petrographic, which takes into account the predominance of one of the members of the mineral fraction of these, from which siliceous, clayey, limestone, saline, etc. soils result. The genetic ones, which take into account the process that gave rise to them, are the autochthonous and the allochthonous. And finally, the climatic ones, where each of them corresponds to a climatic zone of the Earth, for example, intertropical zone soil.

On the other hand, the word soil refers to the extension of territory that belongs to a state or country. For example; one of my goals in this life is to set foot on foreign soil.