Greek term, whose root means “knowledge”, which is often translated as “science”, and by which the Greek philosophers referred to true knowledge, as opposed to apparent knowledge, reasonable belief. For Plato, episteme is true knowledge, which can only be knowledge of the immutable, of true reality, of Ideas, as opposed to “doxa”, “opinion”, knowledge of sensible reality.

For Aristotle, however, the episteme would be the knowledge obtained through demonstration.

According to Plato, the truth is in that world of ideas that is the model of the sensible world. The material environment is apparent, changing, corruptible and confusing. This sensible world is known through doxa, or what is the same, opinion. However, there is a very important difference between opinion and doxa. Plato considers it a risk to make general deductions from the doxa that are self-evident.

Epistemology had its origins in ancient Greece, and its rise began in the seventeenth century, becoming the center of philosophical reflection. European philosophy defines epistemology as the theory of general knowledge and the English tradition as the philosophy of science. in fact, Aristotle pointed it out as the science whose objective is to know things in their essence and their causes. Obviously, epistemology is a body of knowledge that has science as an object of study when referring to the nature, structure and limits of human knowledge.

It should be considered that in recent decades a diversity of scientific discourses has emerged based on the plurality of epistemological positions and new research perspectives that are included under the term paradigm. Here it is important to mention Thomas Kuhn who in his book the structure of scientific revolutions refers to the term as forms of work and types of questions about reality that provide models of problems and solutions to a scientific community.