Edaphology is a scientific branch that emerges from Geology. Specifically, it is in charge of evaluating, studying and comparing soils and determining if their composition affects nature and the organisms that develop on and within it. Since the ground is the enormous platform on which human beings and terrestrial animals make their lives, a concise study of the conditions in which it is found must be carried out before making a building or structure useful for daily life, this is the role of Edaphology.

Edaphology studies in depth the composition of the soil and determines very interesting aspects of technical and architectural interest, such as the age of the earth and the sediments that make it up. The soil is basically made up of a rock that is called mother, either because of its size or because of its presence in a study radius, compounds such as carbon dioxide, decomposing living beings that with the passage of time and the The onslaught of erosion and climate generate humus and many organic and inorganic compounds in different states (solid, liquid and gaseous). If it is determined how the process has progressed, the age and state of the floor can be determined.

Civil engineering uses soil science in the midst of geological studies prior to the construction of a building, also to make maps of the areas in which it can be built and thus have a graph of the suitable and unsuitable areas for the development of urbanism. , roads and buildings.

In the history of soil science we find a great interest in the eighteenth century for classifying soils, not only for construction, but also for their exploration and exploitation, since huge mineral reservoirs can be found in soils useful for manufacturing and precious stones of all kinds. One of the first scientists to explore soils was the Russian Mijaíl Lomonosov, who elaborated complex pedagogical works on the study of soils and how is the evolution of these and the organisms that develop in them.