deconstructionism


Deconstructionism is a type of thought that strongly criticizes, analyzes and revises words and their concepts. The deconstructive discourse highlights the inability of philosophy to establish a stable floor.

It can be understood as the generalization of the implicit method of analysis of the history of philosophy of Martin Heidegger, postulated by Jacques Derrida that is based on historical concepts and metaphorical accumulations (hence the name of deconstruction), showing that the clear and obvious is far of being it, since the tools of the conscience in which the truth must be given are historical, relative and are subject to the paradoxes of the rhetorical figures of metaphor and metonymy.

The term deconstruction is a translation proposed by Derrida into the German Destruktion, which Heidegger uses in his book Being and Time, insofar as he is not so concerned, within the deconstruction of metaphysics, with reduction to nothing, as to show how she fallen. In Heidegger, destruction leads to the concept of time; she must watch in several successive stages the experience of time that has been covered by metaphysics, forgetting the original meaning of being as a temporal being.

Derrida translates and recovers for himself the notion of deconstruction; he understands that the meaning of a given text (essay, novel, newspaper article) is the result of the difference between the words used, since it is not the reference to the things they represent; it is an active difference, working on each sense of each of the words it opposes, in a way analogous to Saussurian differential meaning in linguistics. To mark the active character of this difference (instead of the passive character of the difference relative to a contingent judgment of the subject) Derrida suggests the term difference, a kind of ‘différance’ from the stem of the word that combines difference and the present participle of the verb « differ ». In other words, the different meanings of a text can be discovered by breaking down the structure of the language in which it is written.

Deconstruction is a strongly criticized method, mainly in France, where it is associated with Derrida’s personality. His style, often opaque, obscures the reading of his texts. However, deconstruction offers a radically new vision and a great force on the philosophy of the twentieth century.

Deconstruction should not be considered as a theory of literary criticism, much less as a philosophy. Deconstruction is really a strategy, a new reading practice, an archipelago of attitudes towards the text. It investigates the conditions of possibility of the conceptual systems of philosophy, but should not be confused with a search for the transcendental conditions of the possibility of knowledge. Deconstruction revises and dissolves the canon in an absolute denial of meaning, but does not propose an alternative organic model.