Cybernetics


Once the basic sciences that we know today are established, a fusion of these is carried out, together with electronics and computing, to apply different studies to natural behavior and, subsequently, implement these mechanisms in the creation of new artifacts that improve the quality of life of the population. One of these sciences is robotics, a discipline in which the behavior of human beings or animals is analyzed, to design robots capable of imitating these behavior patterns; Generally, it is applied at the industrial level, to replace human beings in production jobs. Another example worth mentioning is bionics, a science in which the constitution and functioning of the organism of different living beings is studied, in order to develop mechanical parts capable of replacing them.

However, one of the most outstanding is cybernetics, a science product of the union of mechanics, physics, electronics, chemistry, medicine and sociology. It is a highly complex field of study, whose purpose is the analysis of communication systems between living beings, as part of a data collection that seeks to develop artificial intelligence that works in a similar way.

It emerged in 1942, at the end of World War II, being the term coined by Norbert Wiener, from the Greek word “κυβερνητική”, whose meaning is “art of piloting a ship”. Wiener is the father of cybernetics, who, between 1922 and 1923, carried out various studies on Brownian motion, which laid the foundations for cybernetics and the calculus of probabilities.

Wiener, together with the physiologist Arturo Rosenblueth, set himself the mission of designing a cannon that could shoot down, with very little margin for error, the fast enemy planes during World War II. This arose as part of the problem of not having the ability to easily aim and uncontrol the target’s trajectory, as was possible in earlier times, so a fast and simple machine was built. This event was, mainly, the one that determined the birth of cybernetics.