Criticism


Criticism is a philosophical term that poses the study of the bases of knowledge as a requirement for any philosophical reflection. This epistemological doctrine devised by the philosopher Immanuel Kant seeks to set limits to real knowledge, through a systematic analysis of the conditions of possibility of thought. Criticism believes in the possibility of man reaching knowledge, but it is important to rationally justify the way in which said knowledge is reached.

Kant’s purpose with this theory was to subject the reason to a detailed study to observe its structure and thus be able to establish the way in which they obtained that knowledge. He wants to argue human knowledge, setting the contributions from experience. The individual receives the information, organizes it, shapes it through “a priori” systems of reason, sensitivity and understanding. The “a priori” way is given by the individual and always has a necessary and universal way of being.

Kant defines criticism as a doctrine that stands out for its maturity over the others, since it analyzes all the statements of the human mind and does not deliberately admit anything, criticism always asks for reasons and asks for explanations from human reason. His position is not dogmatic, much less skeptical, but rather critical and reflective.

It can be said then that the Kantian criticism arises from a criticism of rationalism and empiricism, taking into account that these doctrines do not take into account the active role of the subject within the cognitive process.

Kant wanted to establish a link between universal laws and the conviction that “knowledge” arises from sensory experiences. Then, if knowledge comes from the senses, the facts are of an individual nature and the universal principles could not be known.

Given this, Kant makes a difference between analytical judgments and synthetic judgments. The former are autonomous from nature, therefore they can be established universally; while the latter are related to experience.

It can be concluded then, that within intelligence there is nothing that does not arise from experience, but at the same time all that knowledge is derived in the same way.