Chemical bond


The term chemical bond is used to refer to the union that exists between two atoms (which may be the same or different) in order to form a molecule. Atoms are composed of an atomic nucleus and at the same time are surrounded by electrons (which have a negative electrical charge). In a chemical bond there is participation between the electrons that make up the atoms that are intertwined, because it is through them that the bonds unite, in chemical terms it is said that it is a transfer of electrons between atoms the phenomenon that occurs in a chemical bond.

In the world in which we live, only the noble gases and metals in the vapor state are naturally present as isolated atoms, that is, single atoms, which do not come together to create a molecule, so it can be said that most of the elements that exist are formed by chemical bonds, which are formed in order to achieve chemical stability. The bonds are formed as a consequence of the movement that exists between the valence electrons of an atom, which are the electrons that are in the outermost layer, that is, those of the last energy level, in most cases the objective is have eight electrons in this last cloud in order to be stable (which for them means looking as much like the closest noble gas as possible, trying to copy its structure).

Because the nature of each atom is different, there are also different types of chemical bonds, which are: ionic bond, this type of bond is about giving or receiving electrons, it can be one or several. When the electrons are transferred, the atom is positively charged (called ion cation) and when receiving electrons the atom has a greater negative charge (called ion anion), in this type of bond the phenomenon occurs that ions that have opposite charges attract each other. On the other hand, there is the covalent bond, which occurs when atoms share electrons with each other and the difference in electronegativity between them is minimal, and the metallic bonds, and the bonds through hydrogen bonds.