Burn


A burn is an injury caused by external factors (heat, chemical substances, electrical discharges, radiation) on organic tissues, leading to their partial or total destruction. The severity of a burn will depend on its extension and depth. The classification of the burn depending on its depth is first, second and third degree. A first degree burn, only affects the epidermis, is the least serious because it is a very superficial injury that only causes redness, pain and dryness of the skin, and heals spontaneously; for example, mild sunburn. A second-degree burn partially affects the dermis, its depth is greater, it causes humidity, blisters and a lot of pain, sometimes it leaves scars; for example, a burn from a scalding liquid or from a caustic chemical.

Third degree burns affect the entire dermis, they are so deep that they can reach the muscles and other tissues. In it there is no possibility of skin regeneration, it always leaves a scar and may require skin grafts.

The extent of a burn is expressed as the percentage of body surface area injured. Thus we have that a 2nd degree burn in 70% of the body is more serious than a 3rd degree burn that covers 20 or 25% of it, since there is more amount of injured tissue and toxic substances and the loss of liquid is greater. To determine the severity of a person’s burns, the so-called Rule of Nine has been established, modified for children, which distributes the body into areas so that it is possible to calculate the percentage of the surface that has been burned.
The emergency treatment to apply to a person with a burn would be to wash the lesions well with water, use painkillers to relieve the pain, give them salted water to drink, to replace the liquids lost by the burn. Cover the lesions or affected areas, which reduces the loss of liquids and prevents the arrival of impurities, and transfer the injured person to a hospital or outpatient clinic to complete the definitive treatment.

On the other hand, it should be noted that current research approaches are aimed at improving the nutrition of people with burns, their immune response to infection, and achieving skin growth in artificial culture media to cover large damaged areas. from reduced donor areas (grafts).