Bibliometrics is a science that employs statistical and mathematical procedures in any literature that is related to scientific topics, and also to the writers who produce it. This is done for the purpose of analyzing scientific performance. For this, it has the help of bibliometric laws, which are based on regular statistical behavior, which over time has manifested the various elements that constitute science. The mechanisms used to evaluate the aspects of this phenomenon are the so-called bibliometric indicators, an evaluation that provides information on the results of scientific activity in any of its expressions.

It is argued that the first bibliometric study was carried out by Cole and Eales. In this study, a statistical analysis of the books or editions on comparative anatomy between the years 1550 and 1860 was carried out, according to their distribution by country and the divisions of the animal kingdom. After this, in 1923 E. Hulme, who was a librarian at the British Patent Office, carried out a statistical study of the history of science, establishing a first step towards what would be called scientology in the future.

Bibliometric studies are frequently classified according to data sources, which are based on: bibliographical and abstracts, references or citations, directories or general catalogs of journal titles.

Bibliometrics is normally applied in: the choice of texts and periodicals, in the identification of the thematic aspects of literature; in the history of science, evaluation of bibliographies, identification of the most productive countries, organizations or writers in a specific time.

Some of the bibliometric laws are:

The law of exponential growth, its statement is as follows: “Science grows at compound interest, multiplying by a certain amount in equal periods of time (every 10-15 years it multiplies itself by 2). The growth rate is proportional to the size of the population or total acquired magnitude. The bigger science is, the faster it grows.”

All this statement corresponds to the following mathematical expression:

N = N0 ebt

Law of the productivity of the authors, this law shows that the work/author relationship follows a persistent behavior in certain eventualities. This law considers that starting from a number of writers with a single job on a specific topic, there is the possibility of predicting the number of writers with jobs. Its formula is:

A(n) = K / n2

Law of Dispersion of Scientific Literature, this law shows that in the preparation of articles in journals there is an inequality in distribution, where most articles are concentrated in a small population of journals, while a tiny number of writings, are spread over a number of items. Its formula is: