It is a chronic disease of the large and medium-sized airways of the lungs, which are called bronchi. It consists of inflammation due to irritation of the bronchial tubes, which in an asthmatic attack, can go into spasms and the membranes that cover them inside become red and inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is also produced.

The swelling, coupled with the extra mucus, makes it hard to breathe, so the chest expands violently in an effort to take in air and the diaphragm pushes out. This effort is translated into a respiratory noise that is called fatigue.

Under normal conditions, the bronchi are smooth and dilated, with pink membrane walls. Inside the healthy bronchi, there are cilia, which look like tiny hairs, which are in motion, which are responsible for displacing mucus. In this way, the air enters and leaves without producing any noise.

It has been discovered that this disease is caused by an allergic reaction, which in turn is caused by a genetic predisposition of the individual to environmental exposure. This means that asthma is a reaction to a stimulus, that is, when the person inhales mites, pollens, molds, tobacco smoke, among other things that can cause allergic reactions, he suffers irritation and inflammation of his airways. , a process that translates as asthma.

In addition, there are other elements that can trigger an asthmatic attack, such as cold air, physical exercise, strong emotions (such as anger or fear), and even medications such as aspirin and beta-blockers.

Unlike most allergies, which have a variety of symptoms, asthma maintains symptoms based on shortness of breath (producing bluish lips and drowsiness), fatigue, cough, and muscle tension in areas around the neck and neck. the ribs, due to the effort they exert to take in air.

When a person presents the symptoms of asthma, it is said that he is experiencing an asthmatic attack, where a distortion in breathing occurs. Normally, a person completes their air aspiration process and once it is finished, expiration automatically begins. Under an asthmatic attack, expiration is not so automatic, since the obstructed airways block the exit of air, which causes the person to breathe at the maximum of their lungs.

Asthma is not communicable, but despite this its frequency is very common, especially in children. It is estimated that some 235 million people have asthma in the world.