Anthropometry


Anthropometry is a discipline belonging to biological anthropology that is responsible for the study of the human body, its measurements and dimensions, since according to experts, these can be subject to modifications, depending on age, sex, race, etc. This science is associated with physical or biological anthropological research, which is responsible for studying the biological and genetic aspects of human beings, to compare them with each other.

Anthropometry arises during the eighteenth century in order to distinguish individuals either by groups or races. However, it was not until 1870 when this science was discovered, thanks to the publication made by the Belgian-born mathematician Quebelet, called “Anthropométrie”. Finally, by the year 1940, anthropometry managed to gain ground, as a result of the warlike expectations existing worldwide at that time. In this case, it was used for the design of spaces and objects that would be used by men who obviously had different dimensions as a result of age, race, among others.

There are two kinds of anthropometry: structural and functional. Structural focuses on the head, trunk, and limbs in stereotyped positions. As for the functional ones, these include measures that must be taken when the body is in motion. By obtaining this information, it will be possible to better understand the minimum physical spaces that man requires for his best daily development, which will be taken into consideration in the design of his environment.

Currently, anthropometry performs really important tasks in the area of ​​industrial design, in ergonomics, architecture and biomechanics; where the information provided by statistics is used as to how the corporeal measurements of the population are distributed in order to improve the products. It is important to understand that due to the changes that man has had in terms of his lifestyle, nutrition and racial composition in recent years, he has generated an important transformation in the distribution of body dimensions, an example of this would be obesity ; which leads to the need to periodically update the anthropometric database.

To conclude, it can be said that the importance of this science lies in the fact that it represents the basis for projecting jobs, changing room design, tools and equipment.