Animal cell


Animal cell is a kind of eukaryotic cell that constitutes the tissues of animals. Animals, like plants and fungi, are multicellular organisms, which means that they are made up of cells that work in a coordinated manner. However, it can be the case of animals that are composed of a single cell, such as “protozoa”, which are unicellular microorganisms.

The size and shape of animal cells are very different, but they have one element in common and that is that they are microscopic, in addition to having a nucleus and cytoplasm, contained in a membrane.

The internal part of an animal cell can present different structures. On one side is the cell membrane, which surrounds the animal cell and encloses it. There is also the cytoplasm, where various organelles are distinguished, such as centrioles, ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus.

Another important detail is that the animal cell, unlike the plant cell, does not have a cell wall and does not have chloroplasts. By not having a cell wall, the animal cell can take a wide variety of forms, even a phagocytic cell can surround and destroy other structures.

Animal cell and its organelles, the organelles are the cellular components or subdivisions, located in the cytoplasm and fulfill a certain function.

Animal Cell and its Parts

The parts of the typical animal cell are as follows:

    • Nucleus: represents the cellular brain. It is the one that establishes the guidelines for the proper functioning of many biological processes. In the animal cell, the nucleus is very important because it contains all the genetic information involved in heredity. It is spherical in shape and measures approximately 5.2 millimeters in diameter. Inside the DNA molecules and proteins are organized into chromosomes and can be formed in pairs.
    • Cellular or plasma membrane: this consists of a thin structure that encloses the animal cell and distances it from its environment. It is a kind of semi-permeable membrane, basically composed of substances such as lipids and fats. Its function is to select that the molecules that enter and leave it work.
  • Cytoplasm: it is a viscous fluid, where the different structures that make up the animal cell are found. Within this colorless substance are located many molecules. It makes up the entire matrix and organelles, not including the nucleus. One of its functions is to protect the cellular organelles and help them in their movements.

The functions carried out by animal cells are:

    • The one of nutrition, since it allows to obtain the substances and the elements that you need from each ingested food in order to transform them into energy.
    • Reproduction, where new cells are fertilized from a mother cell.
    • Cytoskeleton: it is a structure made up of proteins in the form of a three-dimensional framework, its function is to provide internal support to the bone marrow, it is involved in the phenomena of traffic, transport and cell division, it is also involved in the organization of internal cellular structures. The cytoskeleton facilitates cell movement and maintains the cell’s shape.
    • The nucleoplasm: is the layer that surrounds the nucleus, its material is double layered. this membrane is perforated by pores that facilitate and allow the exchange of cellular matter between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.
  • Centrioles: are responsible for organizing the assembly in cell division. They are organelles with their cylindrical structure, made up of 9 triplets of microtubules that are part of the cytoskeleton. When the centrioles are located inside the cell and in pairs perpendicular to each other, they are called diplosomes.

Among other functions of centrioles, is the transport of organelles, transports the cell particles of the cell, maintains the cell in shape and constitutes the cytoskeleton axis in the cells. eukaryotic cilia and flagella.

  • Lysosomes: they are sacs formed by hydrolytic enzymes whose main function is to digest cellular waste. Lysosomes function as digestive system of the cells.

Animal Cell Functions

The animal cell fulfills two important functions, that of nutrition and reproduction. As far as nutrition is concerned, the cell is responsible for taking all the nutrients that are on the outside and is responsible for converting them into substances so that they are part of the cell.

In this way it generates the necessary energy to be used by the living being, and produces waste that the cell eliminates.

The animal and plant cell belong to the group of eukaryotic cells, both have a defined nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the cytoskeletal elements are shared.

Through maps, plans and models, they are examples of models used by experts for research and analysis of complex phenomena, very small or too large. The model animal cell is a simpler representation model of its parts and structure.

Eukaryotic Animal Cell

It is a cell that contains two organelles, some membranous and others not, its cytoplasm allows it to have heterotrophic nutrition.

An example is the human cell, with a nucleus inside and a cytoplasm made up of organelles.

Animal cell

Parts of the Eukaryotic Animal Cell

    • The nucleus: it is the structure that characterizes this cell, it is formed by a nuclear membrane in charge of wrapping the DNA. This is made up of a structure called chromatin, when the cell divides it divides and forms chromosomes.
    • Mitochondria: they are responsible for obtaining the necessary energy for the cell, through cellular respiration. Mitochondria are large organelles, surrounded by a double membrane. They use oxygen to oxidize the organic matter that enters it and release it as energy and carbon dioxide (CO2).
    • The Golgi apparatus: is formed by vesicles and sacs that come from the endoplasmic reticulum. The substances produced here are modified and generate vesicles that become part of the cell organelles and can be expelled abroad.
    • Endoplasmic reticulum: it is formed by tubes, vesicles and sacs, there are two types:
    • he rough endoplasmic reticulum, so called because of its appearance and having ribosomes attached to its surface. Its function is to reduce, transport and store proteins.
    • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum: is responsible for the production of lipids.
    • Lysosomes: they are organelles that were formed from the Golgi apparatus, inside they contain digestive enzymes that are responsible for carrying out cellular digestion.
  • Centrioles: they are cylinder-shaped organelles, exclusive to animal cells, they intervene directly with cell division, forming the cytoskeleton and the spindle.

Differences between Animal and Plant Cell

    • The most striking difference between animal and plant cells is that plant cells have a wall that provides them with greater rigidity.
    • The plant cell has plastids or plastids, the animal cell does not have them.
    • Animal cells have organelles called lysosomes, plant cells do not.
    • The animal cell has a very small number of vacuoles, while the plant cell has a large number of them.
    • In the animal cell, the mitochondria is responsible for generating energy, whereas in the plant cell, the chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis.
    • The nutrition of plant cells is autotrophic, while in the animal is heterotrophic.
    • Animal cells have different shapes, while plant cells only have one shape, prismatic.
  • Eukaryotic cells have a defined nucleus in its nuclear envelope and contains DNA, these characteristics are found in the animal or plant cell.

Plant Cell with its Parts and Functions

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that are present in plants. They are eukaryotes because their genetic information, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is covered by a membrane forming the nucleus.

Among the characteristics of plant cells is having a rectangular or square shape, it has a set of very particular structures such as the rigidity of its cell wall, plastids and vacuoles of extensive dimensions.

Parts and Functions of the Plant Cell

    • Golgi apparatus: they are a group of cavities one on top of the other and its function is to store the substances that will be discarded by the cells and to produce, transport and store proteins, substances necessary for the cell.
    • Cytoplasmic membrane: it is a very thin layer that surrounds the cell, it maintains the cytoplasm and the organelles in the cell.
    • Cell wall: this structure is present only in the plant cell, it is the outermost layer of the cell that protects and surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane.
    • The Nucleus: in this structure is the hereditary information of the cell in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. Information about the characteristics of the species is transported through this acid.
  • Nucleolus: is a structure found inside the nucleus. It is involved in the synthesis of proteins and helps to synthesize ribonucleic acid.

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